At this point individual raters may ask to see the essay or to hear it read again. Reading Research Quarterly 25, 31— Scoring of Lecture Responses The lecture responses are marked by the same trained raters who mark the reading responses. Test-takers in the no-choice group were escorted to a separate room where they wrote the a priori test. Norton and Starfield report that second language students cited time limits more frequently than any other problem associated with examinations at university.
Given the pattern of choices made by the test-takers and the resulting cell sizes, the results which relate to the first research ques- tion can now be presented. The analysis of the choice patterns of the test-takers in this study revealed that the choices made by low-proficiency test-takers are dif- ferent from the choices made by high-proficiency test-takers. Before describing the methodology of the study a brief review of some studies of choice in both learning and testing settings is pro- vided. These levels are referred to as: This did not occur. The order of the information presented in the lecture follows the order of the questions. A typical example of the first group is articulated in the following comment:
The choices made by test-takers determine the cell sizes for each condition in the study see Table 3. For the topic where the difference between the choice and no- choice groups was largest, a textual analysis smaple the essays was undertaken to look for instances of the use of information not provided in the test.
Summarizing essxy Synthesizing Reading 1: The performance of the test-takers that were given a choice of topic is compared with the performance of those test-takers not given a choice. The significant effect for the writing task indicates that the essay tasks were not of equal difficulty. Applied Measurement in Education 8, — However, the mean rank values are difficult to interpret, so traditional mean values are presented here.
Test-takers were asked to rank these factors from most to least important, in terms of their performance on the test. How well can we compare Downloaded from http: Reading Research Quarterly 25, 31— On the relative value of multiple-choice, constructed response, and examine-selected items on two achievement tests.
Important Notice These instructional materials and all related proprietary rights including copyright and other intellectual property rights are owned solely by Paragon and its licensors, and are protected by Canadian and international copyright and other intellectual property laws. In reviewing this study, it seems probable that the limited number of alternatives offered, given that students chose one of only two options, attenuated the possible impact of choice.
V Discussion and conclusions In terms of sampel first and central research question, the results of this study demonstrate that there is no significant difference in the per- ezsay of test-takers who had a choice of topic as compared with those who had no choice on the essag dependent variables measured.
We set out to design one study that could encompass many aspects of the topic effect i. Language learning background fac- tors and ESL proficiency. It was the most frequently chosen factor for both the choice and the no-choice groups. Deci and Ryan maintain that giving subjects the opportunity to make meaningful choices enhances motiv- ation and results in improved performance. The writing prompt is given to students at the beginning of the test.
They are advised to use 15 minutes to plan their essays and 30 minutes to write their essays. Finally, the test-takers produce a written essay that draws on infor- mation from both the reading passages and the lecture.
The inter-rater reliability of the lsiten- ing scoring process is monitored. The effect of language proficiency and background knowledge on EAP students reading comprehension.
Thus, while the number of subjects in the choice and no-choice groups is equalthe number of test-takers who had an opport- unity to choose any given topic is not equal. The initial sentence provided a position statement sajple the general issue of the topic.
These test-takers were asked to read a two-sentence description of each of five topics and to indicate which test they would like to write.
While the impact of prompt choice on the writing test scores was not the focus of this study, the authors did conduct an analysis of the data to attempt to determine if students with lower overall English proficiency were Downloaded from http: To what extent do test-takers per- ceive choice to be an important part of the testing experience?
Appendix 1 contains a more detailed description of the components of the test as well as a number of test items taken from a sample test which is available to test-takers prior to their test date.
In this study we might not expect the same sort of attenuation of the potential effect of topic choice as was suggested for the studies in which the test-taker was given a choice from only two topics. Although part of the fault is due to natural causes, the main culprits are the forest industry itself and the government.
You may use these instructional materials solely for your personal preparation for a test session and not for any other purpose whatsoever. Heartland International English School. That is, do the higher scores reflect a tendency for female students to score higher on measures of language pro- ficiency?
An esszy of the demographic vari- ables of each group also supports this statistical observation.