Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by many filamentous fungi and contaminated various agricultural commodities in pre-harvest, harvest, post-harvest and in storage conditions Kumar et al. Cereals, pulses and derived products”. It is usually flavored with such spices as ginger, black pepper, and tamarind for improvement in its taste and aroma, and also to serve as purgative and cure for flatulent conditions. Click here to sign up. Chemical compounds studied in this article. Also activities of the natural food enzymes could also contribute in the spoilage.
Ayo and Okeke have reported that kunu is rich in carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals but low in protein. Sorghum which is used for kunu drink are always harvested during the rainy season, a best period for yeast and mould which favors contamination by fungi and subsequent mycotoxin contamination. The evidence of the co-occurrence of different metabolites from different origin, with a wide variety of concentration, is relevant and complex, especially if we consider the absence of detailed studies on the effects of the non-regulated metabolites on human health. Malt caramel from the nuts of Cyperus esculentus. It is considered being the primary cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in mammals Barkai- Golan and Paster,
Tigernuts Cyperus esculentusspices ginger and pepperand sugars were purchased from a local market in Umuahia Township, Abia State, Nigeria.
Production of tigernut milk Tigernut milk extract was produced according to the method of Odunfa and Adeyeye Other factors include insects, rodents or pests presents in the environment during the preparation, temperature, time and light. Phosphorus has also been reported to be required for bone growth, kidney function, cell growth, and maintaining the body’s pH balance Fallon and Enig This low level is of no concern, because the toxicity of this substance was demonstrated for much higher adsorption Yekeler et al.
Dried stalks are used for cooking fuel, and dye can be extracted from the plant to color leather. Sensory evaluation The kunun zaki samples were subjected to sensory evaluation for the attributes of appearance, viscosity, aroma, taste, and acceptability. Carbohydrate was determined by difference. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Its cheapness is owed to the ready availability of cereals and additives locally sourced as they grow throughout the savannah belt of west Africa Elmahood, In some developing nations, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. Field fungi do not compete well under normal and dry storage conditions, but may grow extensively in improperly preserved maize at high moisture Meronuck, Retrieved 25 June It is considered being the primary cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in mammals Barkai- Golan and Paster, The tigenuts were washed and then boiled in 0.
DON exposure has been linked to incidences of acute gastrointestinal diseases, kidney problems and immunosuppressive in animals Pestka et al.
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This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in zako medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The corresponding peak areas of the spiked samples were used for the calculation of apparent recoveries by comparison to a standard prepared and diluted in neat solvent.
Aflatoxins are of great concern due to their detrimental effects literatjre the health of humans and animals Zinedine and Manes, The chemical analysis of food. Inclusion of tigernut milk extract should therefore be encouraged among producers of the beverage drink as a result of the derivable nutritional benefits that consumers can gain. It is interesting to note that tigernut contributed significantly to ash contents of the beverage as a results of higher values recorded in samples containing TME than the control sample; significant differences were also noted between the samples.
The samples ilterature from each of the seller at a particular market were mixed together to form a composite sample for the market.
Analysis of mineral contents of the kunun zaki samples indicates that sample without TME recorded the lowest value Data literatkre subjected to variance analyses and differences between means were evaluated by Duncan’s multiple range test using SPSS statistic programme, version Further, an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on the health and productivity of human and animals have persuaded many countries around the world to implement regulations for maximum tolerable levels to control occurrence of these compounds in human kuhu and animal feed Garrido et al.
The process of production involves wet milling of the cereal, wet sieving, partial gelatinization of the slurry, mild fermentation, sugar addition, and bottling. A sample of kunun zaki with no addition of tigernut milk served as control KN High temperature and lack of refrigeration facilities in most developing countries have led to revkew inability to produce and store fresh kunun zaki.
Three main types of ochratoxin are; A, B, and C Figure 4. Gert, but grains are always harvested during the rainy season, a best period for yeast and mould which favors contamination by fungi and subsequent mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins may also be carcinogenic, teratogenic, tremorogenic, haemorrhagic, and immune- toxic, oestrogenic, effects dermatitis and nephrogenic to a lot of organisms Burger et al.
This climatic reviw as well as the storage practices usually employed by the farmers in the DS zone Adetunji et al. This could be as iunu result of higher content of fiber contained in millet than tigernut Belewu and Abodunrin Thus, a combination of legumes with grains forms a well-balanced diet for vegetarians.